Values, who needs them?

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I remember it clearly. It was in a painting class at Art Center College in Pasadena, CA that I was taught values. No, not moral values, but rather the kind we use in painting. Sometimes they’re referred to as “tone”, but most of us painters are more familiar with the term “value”.  (Click images to enlarge)

This is a typical nine-step gray scale…white on one end, black on the other. Number five, is a mid-gray,  halfway between white and black.

Here, color has been added in its appropriate place on the value scale. The gray scale above is this chart with color removed. It’s a clear demonstration that all color fits someone on a scale from white to black. It is sometimes very difficult to discern a color’s value, particularly if it is an intense color…as easily seen in the number 5 and 7 slots, above. Squinting is a valuable aid in discerning accurate values.


The dramatic revelation for me was that painters basically have nine values to work with…white through black…and that every color fits somewhere within that range. In other words, every color has a value. You would think I would have been taught such an important principle during four years of art instruction at Wichita State, but ‘no’, it was never mentioned.

John Pototschnik – “Out of Bounds” – 18″ x 24″ – Oil


When learned and absorbed, that knowledge brought dramatic changes to my work. Even today, I maintain that the value structure within a painting is more important than color. It’s value that defines the quality of light; for example, on a bright sunny day, the values will cover a broader range and reveal more contrast. Conversely, in low light or on cloudy days, the opposite is true.


It’s value that determines the mood of a painting, not color.


It’s value that defines the separation between light and shadow, and it’s the value of underlying abstract shapes in a painting that give it substance…that powerful visual effect. When the values are incorrect, out of place, or not clearly representing the desired mood, an inferior painting will be the result…guaranteed. In Cezanne’s painting, we see what can happen when value is of lesser importance.

Paul Cezanne – “L’Estaque View Through the Pines” – 28.5″ x 35.5″ – Oil  (1883)


All the paintings below have had the color removed…clearly illustrating, in a positive way, an outstanding value structure. Notice also a clarity of mood and the palatable strength of each painting. They are absolutely beautiful without the color. One can almost imagine the color because the values are so dead on.

Ivan Shishkin “Apiary in a Forest” – 31.25″ x 25″ – Oil  (1876)

Leon-Augustin L’hermitte – “The Lesson of Claude Bernard” (1889)

Daniel Ridgway Knight – “The Laundress” – 24.8″ x 18.5″ – Watercolor, gouache, pencil

Edward Seago – “Amsterdam” – 15.75″ x 17.5″ – Oil

Hugh Bolton Jones – “Twilight” – 11″ x 15″ – Oil  (1885)

Jean Baptiste Camille Corot – “The Roman Campagna”  (1826)


For some time now, I have used a monochromatic block-in for many of my studio works…and also for some plein air work as well. With all concern about color eliminated, emphasis can be placed solely on drawing, composition, and establishment of the appropriate mood. It’s a good way to work. All great painters understand that the thoughtful organization of abstract value shapes are the foundation upon which every successful painting is built. First, they strive for simplicity…the elimination of detail and unnecessary values. One technique used is to squint. Richard Schmid says to squint only at the subject, not the painting. Squinting not only helps one simplify but also clarify value relationships.

Daniel Garber – “Stockton” – 28″ x 36″ – Oil  (1920)


It is a good practice when painting to first establish the darkest dark and lightest light of the painting. After that it’s a matter of accurately relating each succeeding value to those two. Additionally, when drawing the abstract value shapes, it’s important to create variety…variety of shape size, and distribution of values; in other words, avoid an equal amount of light, middle, and dark tones. A dominant shape and value are always preferred. This can be achieved in at least three ways: 1) Crop the subject in different ways until variety is achieved. 2) Redraw while emphasizing some shapes and values over others. 3) Reduce or increase some values in the subject in order to create the desired contrast and importance.

Joaquin Sorrolla y Bastida – “Valencian Fisherman” – 25.5″ x 34.25″ – Oil  (1895)

Newell Convers Wyeth – “Still life with Onions” – 32.12″ x 40.38″ – Oil  (1931)

I’ve been privileged to teach many painting workshops over the years. One commonality among all students is that they love color, but they do not consider the value of each color. As a result, their paintings end up basically in the mid-range of the value scale and inharmonious in color. Instructing them to create a monochromatic painting always takes them out of their comfort zone, while also challenging them to answer the question…”How do you expect to create a good painting in color if you can’t even do it in black and white?”


If you’re struggling with color and your paintings are weak, I suggest putting away the color and work only in black and white for a while…plein air and in the studio. You’ll see incredible growth in the quality of your work.



Charles Sprague Pearce – “Evening” – 40.5″ x 69.25″ – Oil  (1880)


I prefer clarity, in painting that means values that are accurately placed, correct for the subject, and for the intended mood. A great way to see if your paintings will hold up under the scrutinizing eye of the “value inspector” is to photograph them in black and white. Weaknesses will be very evident.


***My DVD, “Limited Palette Landscapes” demonstrates in real time my whole painting process from selection of the canvas, through monochromatic block-in, to application of color…to final brushstroke. It’s a best seller with lots of five-star reviews. HERE are all the details. For my book, “Limited Palette Unlimited Color” and its accompanying DVD, “Create Unlimited Color with a Limited Palette”, and more five-star reviews, click HERE. Interested in everything I have to offer? HERE ya go.


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